Peru

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Additional Information
Capital Lima
Currency PEN
Timezone America/Lima
Total States 196 provinces
Airport City Jorge Chávez International Airport, Alejandro Velasco Astete International Airport, Rodríguez Ballón International Airport, Coronel FAP Francisco Secada Vignetta International Airport, FAP Captain Guillermo Concha Iberico International Airport
Ruling Type Government
Offical Languages Spanish, Aymara, Castellano, Quechua, Castellano
National Animal Vicuña
Food Ceviche, Lomo saltado, Ají de gallina
Seasons Autumn  : Mar - Jun
Summer : Dec - Mar
Winter     : Jun - Sep
Sprint      : Sep - Dec


Destination



1 ) Lima
Popular - Culture     Location - Lima, -Lima, -Peru

Lima (/ˈlmə/Spanish pronunciation: [ˈlima]), is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central coastal part of the country, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area. With a population of more than 9 million,  Lima is the most populous metropolitan area of Peru and the third-largest city in the Americas (as defined by "city proper"), behind São Paulo and Mexico City.

Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro on 18 January 1535 as Ciudad de los Reyes in the agricultural region known by native Peruvians as Limaq, a name that it had acquired over time. It became the capital and most important city in the Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the Peruvian War of Independence, it became the capital of the Republic of Peru (República del Perú). Around one-third of the national population lives in the metropolitan area.

Lima is home to one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the New World. The National University of San Marcos, founded on 12 May 1551, during the Spanish colonial empire, is the first officially established and the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas.


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2 ) Lima
Popular - Historical     Location - Lima, -Lima, -Peru

Lima (/ˈlmə/Spanish pronunciation: [ˈlima]), is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central coastal part of the country, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area. With a population of more than 9 million,  Lima is the most populous metropolitan area of Peru and the third-largest city in the Americas (as defined by "city proper"), behind São Paulo and Mexico City.

Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro on 18 January 1535 as Ciudad de los Reyes in the agricultural region known by native Peruvians as Limaq, a name that it had acquired over time. It became the capital and most important city in the Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the Peruvian War of Independence, it became the capital of the Republic of Peru (República del Perú). Around one-third of the national population lives in the metropolitan area.

Lima is home to one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the New World. The National University of San Marcos, founded on 12 May 1551, during the Spanish colonial empire, is the first officially established and the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas.


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3 ) Cusco
Popular - Architecture     Location - Cusco, -Cusco, -Peru

Cusco  is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range. It is the capital of the Cusco Region and of the Cusco Province. In 2017, the city had a population of 428,450. Located on the eastern end of the Knot of Cuzco, its elevation is around 3,400 m (11,200 ft).

The city was the historic capital of the Inca Empire from the 13th until the 16th-century Spanish conquest. In 1983, Cusco was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO with the title "City of Cuzco". It has become a major tourist destination, hosting nearly 2 million visitors a year. The Constitution of Peru designates it as the Historical Capital of Peru.

The indigenous name of this city is Qusqu. Although the name was used in Quechua, its origin is found in the Aymara language. The word is derived from the phrase qusqu wanka ('Rock of the owl'), related to the city's foundation myth of the Ayar Siblings. According to this legend, Ayar Awqa (Ayar Auca) acquired wings and flew to the site of the future city; there he was transformed into a rock to mark the possession of the land by his ayllu ("lineage"):

Then Ayar Oche stood up, displayed a pair of large wings, and said he should be the one to stay at Guanacaure as an idol in order to speak with their father the Sun. Then they went up on top of the hill. Now at the site where he was to remain as an idol, Ayar Oche raised up in flight toward the heavens so high that they could not see him. He returned and told Ayar Manco that from then on he was to be named Manco Capac. Ayar Oche came from where the Sun was and the Sun had ordered that Ayar Manco take that name and go to the town that they had seen. After this had been stated by the idol, Ayar Oche turned into a stone, just as he was, with his wings. Later Manco Capac went down with Ayar Auca to their settlement...he liked the place now occupied in this city Cuzco. Manco Capac and his companion, with the help of the four women, made a house. Having done this, Manco Capac and his companion, with the four women, planted some land with maize. It is said that they took the maize from the cave, which this lord Manco Capac named Pacaritambo, which means those of origin because...they came out of that cave.


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4 ) Chimbote
Popular - Beach     Location - Chimbote, -Ancash, -Peru

Chimbote is the largest city in the Ancash Region of Peru, and the capital of both Santa Province and Chimbote District.

The city is located on the coast in Ferrol Bay, 130 km south of Trujillo and 420 kilometers (260 mi) north of Lima on the North Pan-American highway. It is the start of a chain of important cities on the Peruvian north coast like Trujillo, Chiclayo and Piura. The advantages of this geographic location made Chimbote into a transshipment junction for the Santa River valley

In 1835, when General Santa Cruz granted Chimbote's first official acknowledgement, Chimbote was a village of fishermen with a population of no more than 800.

In 1871, an agreement was made with Henry Meiggs to build a railroad towards the interior of the country. Chimbote was classified as a port, even though its population remained around 1,000. The opening of the Pan-American Highway created easy access to Lima in the 1930s. In 1881, there was an attempt to cede a naval base to the U.S. in Chimbote Bay by Peru. The deal was blocked by Chile who sent its marines to occupy Chimbote after learning of the deal to cede a naval base to the U.S. Navy.

In 1940, Chimbote was still a small fishing port, with only 2,400 inhabitants in an urbanized area of 80 hectares (0.80 km2; 0.31 sq mi). In 1943, the government created the Corporación Peruana del Santa (Peruvian Corporation of Santa). This entity assumed ownership of the railroad, made improvements to the port, and began work on a hydroelectric power station on the Río Santa (in the Cañón del Pato [Duck Canyon] in Huallanca). The first stage of the power station was inaugurated in 1958; also that year, an iron and steel plant was built.[nb 1] By 1943, the first companies dedicated to the extraction of liver from the Pacific bonito fish arrived. This liver was sold for a high price abroad due to World War II.


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5 ) Arequipa
Popular - Historic Building     Location - Arequipa, -Arequipa, -Peru

Arequipa  is a city located in the province and the eponymous department of Peru. It is the seat of the Constitutional Court of Peru and often dubbed "legal capital of Peru."  It is the second most populated city in Peru, after Lima, with an urban population of 1,008,290 inhabitants according to the 2017 national census.

Its metropolitan area integrates twenty-one districts, including the foundational central area, which it is the seat of the city government. The city has a Nominal GDP of 9,445 million (USD) and a nominal GDP per capita of 10,277 USD, which represents a GDP per capita PPP of 18,610 USD in the period 2015, being the second city with the highest economic activity in Peru.

Arequipa is also an important industrial and commercial center of Peru,  and is considered as the second industrial city of the country. Within its industrial activity the manufactured products and the textile production of wool of camelids. The town maintains close commercial links with Chile, Bolivia, and Brazil and with the cities connected the South trainway, as well as with the port of Matarani.


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6 ) Trujillo
Popular - Temple / Church / Mosque     Location - Trujillo, -La Libertad, -Peru

Trujillo (/trˈhj/ troo-HEE-yohSpanish: [tɾuˈxiʝo]) is a city in coastal northwestern Peru and the capital of the Department of La Libertad. It is the third most populous city  and center of the third most populous metropolitan area of Peru. It is located on the banks of the Moche River, near its mouth at the Pacific Ocean, in the Moche Valley. This was a site of the great prehistoric Moche and Chimu cultures before the Inca conquest and subsequent expansion.

The Independence of Trujillo from Spain was proclaimed in the Historic Centre of Trujillo on December 29, 1820, and the city was honored in 1822 by the Congress of the Republic of Peru with the title "Meritorious City and Faithful to the Fatherland", for its role in the fight for Peruvian independence. Trujillo is the birthplace of Peru's judiciary, and it was twice designated as the capital of the country. It was the scene of the Revolution of Trujillo in 1932. Trujillo is considered the "cradle of liberty and cradle of the judiciary in Peru".

Trujillo is also known as the "City of Everlasting Spring", is considered the "Capital of the Marinera", a traditional dance in Peru, "Cradle of the Peruvian Paso horse", as well as the "Capital of Culture of Peru".It has sponsored numerous national and international cultural events, and has a lively arts community. Current festivals include the "National Marinera Festival", the Trujillo Spring Festival and the International Book Festival, which is one of the most important cultural events in the country.


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7 ) Chiclayo
Popular - Metropolitan City     Location - Chiclayo, -Lambayeque, -Peru

Chiclayo   is the principal city of the Lambayeque region in northern Peru. It is located 13 kilometers inland from the Pacific coast and 770 kilometers from the nation's capital, Lima.

Founded by Spanish explorers as "Santa María de los Valles de Chiclayo" in the 16th century, it was declared a city on 15 April 1835 by president Felipe Santiago Salaverry. He named Chiclayo "the Heroic City" to recognize the courage of its citizens in the fight for independence, a title it still holds. Other nicknames for Chiclayo include "The Capital of Friendship" and the "Pearl of the North".

Chiclayo is Peru's fourth-largest city, after Lima, Arequipa, and Trujillo, with a population of 738,000 as of 2011. The Lambayeque region is the fourth most populous metropolitan area of Peru, with a population of 972,713 in 2009.

The city was founded near an important prehistoric archaeological site, the Northern Wari ruins, which constitute the remains of a city from the 7th to 12th century of the Wari Empire.

Many different historical accounts tell of the naming of Chiclayo. Some attribute it to an indigenous man known as "chiclayoc" or "chiclayep" who transported plaster between the ancient cities of Zaña, Lambayeque and Morrope.


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8 ) Huancayo
Popular - Temple / Church / Mosque     Location - Huancayo, -Junin, -Peru

Huancayo (Spanish pronunciation: [waŋˈkaʝo]; in Wanka Quechua: Wankayuq [wɐŋˈkæjuː], '(place) with a (sacred) rock') is the capital of Junín Region, in the central highlands of Peru.

Huancayo is located in Huancayo Province, of which it is also the capital. Situated in the Mantaro Valley at an altitude of 3,271 meters, it belongs to the Quechua region. Depending on delimitation, the agglomeration has a population between 340,000 and 380,000 and is the fifth most populous city of the country. Huancayo is the cultural and commercial center of the whole central Peruvian Andes area. Huancayo Metropolitano is made up of seven districts that form the urban center of Junin's region. This region is considered Peru's economic and social hub.

The area was originally inhabited by the Huancas. At around 500 BC, they were incorporated into the Wari Empire. Despite efforts to defend its independence, the Huancas were eventually subdued by the Inca leader Pachacutec in 1460 and the region was incorporated into the Inca empire. It subsequently became a notable stopping point along the Inca Camino Real.

After the Spanish colonization in 1534, Huancayo was overshadowed by Jauja, a provisional capital of Peru, until Lima took over that role, as established by the conquistador Francisco Pizarro. In 1570, the viceroy Francisco de Toledo established the site as the center of his encomienda Guancayo. The town was officially established on 1 June 1572 with the title of Santísima Trinidad de Huancayo. In 1813, Huancayo celebrated the promulgation of the Constitution of Cadiz, changing the name of "Plaza del Comercio" to "Plaza de la Constitución".


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9 ) Piura
Popular - Food     Location - Piura, -Piura, -Peru

Piura is a city in northwestern Peru located in the Sechura Desert on the Piura River. It is the capital of the Piura Region  and the Piura Province. Its population was 484,475 as of 2017.

It was here that Spanish Conqueror Francisco Pizarro founded the third Spanish city in South America and first in Peru, San Miguel de Piura, in July 1532.[3]:27 Piura declared its independence from Spain on 4 January 1821.

Like most of northern Peru, the territory of Piura has been inhabited by their autochthonous group of natives called tallanes and yungas. These groups lived without an organization or single leader to rule until the Muchik culture eventually took control, and the mixture of these evolved into the Vicús culture. Centuries later, Piura came under the rule of Tupac Inca Yupanqui for at least 40 years before the Spanish arrived.

Francizo Pizarro came to the area and established it as the third Spanish city in South America, and Spain's first city in Peru. With the arrival of the Spanish in 1532, the current'mestizo and creole cultures of Piura were born. This mestizo culture includes influences from Spanish Extremadura and Andalucia; African influence, owing to the arrival of slaves from Madagascar (Malgache slaves); Chinese coolies who migrated from Canton to work the rice fields and replace the slaves; and also Roma Gypsies who came as pirates looking for pearls, or incognito as Spanish horsemen.

The Spanish named the city from the Quechuan word pirhua, meaning "abundance". Nowadays, Piura is known as the "Ciudad del eterno calor" meaning "The city of eternal heat" because it is hot all year round.


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10 ) Tacna
Popular - Desert     Location - Tacna, -Tacna, -Peru

Tacna is a city in southern Peru and the regional capital of the Tacna Region. A very commercially active city, it is located only 35 km (22 mi) north of the border with Arica y Parinacota Region from Chile, inland from the Pacific Ocean and in the valley of the Caplina River. It is Peru's tenth most populous city.

Initially called San Pedro de Tacna, it has gained a reputation for patriotism, with many monuments and streets named after heroes of Peru's struggle for independence (1821–1824) and the War of the Pacific (1879–1883). Residents of Tacna are known in Spanish as tacneños.

Francisco Antonio De Zela, a royal accountant (similar in function to a modern-day income tax auditor), initiated the push for Peruvian Independence from Spain in 1811 in Tacna, leading to a series of commemorative actions for the city, culminating in the 1828 declaration of Tacna as the "Heroic City" (La Heroica Ciudad de San Pedro de Tacna) by President José de La Mar.

It was the capital of the short-lived Peru-Bolivian Confederation (1836–1839) .Tacna's economic prosperity attracted a wave of immigrants from Italy .Today, their Italian Peruvian descendants live in the city and many of them still have Italian surnames. This era of successful commerce and agriculture ended drastically with the start of the War of the Pacific.

During the war, the cities of Tacna and Arica were occupied by the Chilean Army. A peace agreement, the Treaty of Ancón, was signed in 1883. Under the terms of the treaty, Chile was to occupy the provinces of Tacna and Arica for ten years, after which a plebiscite was to be held to determine the region's sovereignty. Tacna remained under Chilean control for 50 years, in Chilean groups and authorities lead a campaign of Chilenization in an attempt to persuade the local population to abandon their Peruvian past and accept Chilean nationality.

However, Peruvian nationalists ensured that the Chilean propaganda failed and the planned plebiscite was never held. Finally, in 1929, the Treaty of Lima was signed in which Chile kept Arica, whilst Peru reacquired Tacna and receiving $6 million indemnity and other concessions.


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11 ) Iquitos
Popular - Culture     Location - Iquitos, -Loreto, -Peru

Iquitos Spanish pronunciation: [iˈkitos]), also known as City of Iquitos, is the capital city of Peru's Maynas Province and Loreto Region. The largest metropolis in the Peruvian Amazon, east of the Andes, it is the ninth most populous city of Peru.

It is known as the "capital of the Peruvian Amazon". The city is located in the Great Plains of the Amazon Basin, fed by the Amazon, Nanay, and Itaya rivers. Overall, it constitutes the Iquitos metropolitan area, a conurbation of 471,993 inhabitants consisting of four districts: Iquitos, Punchana, Belén, and San Juan Bautista. It is the largest city in the world that cannot be reached by road – it is accessible only by river and air.

The area was long inhabited by indigenous peoples. The founding date of the European city is uncertain. Spanish historical documents state that it was set up around 1757 as a Spanish Jesuit reduction by the banks of the Nanay River. The Jesuits gathered local Napeano (Yameo) and Iquito natives to live here, and they named it San Pablo de Napeanos.

In the late 19th century, the city became the center of export of rubber production from the Amazon Basin and was the headquarters of the Peruvian Amazon Company (PAC). The rubber boom attracted thousands of European traders and workers, some of whom amassed wealth with the high-volume production, processing and trade in rubber. The city's economy was highly dependent on the PAC, controlled in the nation by Peruvian businessman Julio César Arana.


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12 ) Juliaca
Popular - Industrial and Manufacturing     Location - Juliaca, -Puno, -Peru

Juliaca  is the capital of San Roman Province in the Puno Region of southeastern Peru. It is the region's largest city with a population of 276,110 inhabitants (2017). On the Altiplano, Juliaca is 3,825 metres (12,549 ft) above sea level, is located on the Collao Plateau and is northwest of Lake Titicaca (45 km). It is the largest trade center in the Puno region.

Juliaca is near Lake Chacas, the Maravillas river, and near the ruins of Sillustani.

The city hosts Juliaca's Carnival each year between February and March. During this very popular event participants, dressed in colorful costumes, gather on the streets to dance in the style of the Collao Plateau. Saint Sebastian's feast is celebrated on January 20 of every year.

Juliaca's citizens rely on cars, trains, and bicycles. It is a major transit point in the region and has strong ties with Peru's southern cities, including Arequipa, Puno, Tacna, Cuzco, Ilo, and with La Rinconada and Bolivia.

Like Chicago, Illinois, it is nicknamed "The Windy City", because of the city's location on the windy Collao Plateau. It is also called the "Sock City" or "Knitting City" because Juliaca was a major center of sock, sweater, and handicraft production. Now the production of clothes, wool and fabrics are industrial processes.

It is also home to Inca Manco Capac Airport, the region's main airport.

 

 


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Festival

1 ) Trujillo Marinera Festival

Festival Month - January

Trujillo, a coastal city in northern Peru, is the traditional home of the marinera, an elegant couple's dance making use of handkerchiefs as props. Since 1986 it's been the official national capital of this dance, a status celebrated annually in a month-long marinera festival held throughout the city!


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2 ) Fiesta de la Candelaria

Festival Month - February

The Fiesta de la Candelaria is not only the largest and most famous festival in Peru, but also one of the largest in South America as a whole, in fact, throughout the continent, it's only dwarfed by the world-famous Carnival in Rio de Janeiro and the Carnaval de Ouro in Bolivia


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3 ) Fiesta de la Virgen del Carmen

Festival Month - July

Another fine example of traditional Andean culture blended with Catholicism, the Fiesta de la Virgen del Carmen is held annually around the 16th of July in the relatively small town of Paucartambo, some four hours outside of Cusco.


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