|Airport City||Sphinx International Airport, Abu Rudeis Airport, Abu Simbel Airport, Alexandria International Airport, Borg El Arab Airport|
|Offical Languages||Modern Standard Arabic, Egyptian Arabic, English,|
|National Animal||Steppe eagle|
|Food||Falafel, Koshari., Mahshi|
Autumn : Sep - Dec
Summer : Jun - Sep
Winter : Dec - Mar
Sprint : Mar - Jun
Luxor is a city on the east bank of the Nile River in southern Egypt. It's on the site of ancient Thebes, the pharaohs’ capital at the height of their power, during the 16th–11th centuries B.C. Today's city surrounds 2 huge, surviving ancient monuments: graceful Luxor Temple and Karnak Temple, a mile north. The royal tombs of the Valley of the Kings and the Valley of the Queens are on the river’s west bank.
Cairo, Egypt’s sprawling capital, is set on the Nile River. At its heart is Tahrir Square and the vast Egyptian Museum, a trove of antiquities including royal mummies and gilded King Tutankhamun artifacts. Nearby, Giza is the site of the iconic pyramids and Great Sphinx, dating to the 26th century BC. In Gezira Island’s leafy Zamalek district, 187m Cairo Tower affords panoramic city views.
What was once a city in its own right has been sucked up into the sprawling urban landscape of Egypt’s capital. Giza’s iconic Great Pyramids, which were the tallest structures in the world before the arrival of skyscrapers, sit on the desert plateau against a backdrop of the ever-encroaching hazy city skyline. The pyramids are one of the world’s most iconic ancient wonders, representing Egypt and its links to historic civilization.
It is a shame, then, that the civil unrest in Egypt and surrounding countries, combined with the threat of terrorist attacks, have resulted in fewer and fewer visitors to the city. Nevertheless, Egypt’s turmoil does not take away from the importance and beauty of the 4,500-year-old edifices, which took 100,000 people to build. Somewhat incredibly, the pharaohs tombs with their chambers and corridors are open to the public.
Aswan, a city on the Nile River, has been southern Egypt’s strategic and commercial gateway since antiquity. It contains significant archaeological sites like the Philae temple complex, on Agilkia Island near the landmark Aswan Dam. Philae’s ruins include the columned Temple of Isis, dating to the 4th century B.C. Downriver, Elephantine Island holds the Temple of Khnum, from the Third Dynasty.
What was once one of the greatest cities in the world, with an incredible collection of books in its library and a huge lighthouse, Alexandria was founded by its namesake – Alexander the Great. A city of epic historical proportions, much of its integral beauty and cultural importance has faded, but it is still possible to glimpse its past glory. The dusty coastal town is thronged with people; its streets, port and beaches are constantly ebbing and flowing with the stream of life – modern city living takes place alongside ancient wonders. Its infusions of various cultures are a legacy of Alexandria’s many conquerors that the Citadel of Qaitbay was built to protect the city from.
Edfu is an Egyptian city, located on the west bank of the Nile River between Esna and Aswan, with a population of approximately sixty thousand people. Edfu is the site of the Ptolemaic Temple of Horus and an ancient settlement, Tell Edfu. About 5 km south of Edfu are remains of ancient pyramids
The resort city of Sharm el Sheikh was once a top tourist destination, labelled ‘the jewel of the Red Sea’; Europeans used to flock to its beautiful beaches looking to catch a tan, have a good time and get value for money. In recent years, the city has seen a huge decline in tourism – a 70 percent decline in fact. Political developments have seen the UK place a flight ban to Sharm el Sheikh, and as a result, the once buzzing city is akin to a ghost town. Hotel rooms are now easy to come by and you won’t have to scramble for space on the sand anymore. Hotel rooms, food and drink prices are cheap. If you are able to catch a flight, you can have a low-cost beach break at Sharm el Sheikh.
Colorful coral reefs and picturesque sandy beaches make Hurghada the ideal city for a summer break. An urban area where old meets new, Hurghada is Egypt’s premier holiday resort destination, with tourists drawn there to linger on the soft sands, enjoy the many delicious restaurants and explore a slice of history. The old town of El Daha reveals real Egyptian life, with its mosques, markets and network of narrow lanes
Most people would picture an oasis as a patch of lush heaven in the middle of the desert, and that’s exactly what Siwa Oasis is. Overflowing with palms, olive trees and shady lanes, the city is scattered with sparkling fresh-water springs. This ancient town is a real-life time capsule; donkeys amble along the old roads and mud houses sit on the edge of the desert. It’s not easy to reach this cut-off settlement, but your efforts will be greatly paid off.
Built out of dust from the construction of the Suez Canal, Port Said was a strategic settlement for trade in the area. Once a seedy city laden with brothels and underhanded trading – the type that’s normal for a busy port town – the city now attracts visitors with its romantically crumbling, grand architecture. Walk along the raised waterfront boulevard that shows off the grandeur of the Suez Canal and take in the incredible feat of human engineering as tankers make their way towards the Med. If you’d like to head out onto the water, there’s also the chance to take the only passenger ship on the canal.
LUXOR, Egypt, Sept. 11 (Xinhua) -- The two-floor Luxor Museum overlooking the east bank of the Nile River in the heart of Upper Egypt's monument-rich city of Luxor, a capital in ancient Egypt known as Thebes, is a unique landmark for exploring the history of ancient Egypt through different eras.
The museum was opened for visitors in 1975 by late Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, accompanied by former French President Valery Giscard d'Estaing.
Built on an area of more than 5,300 square meters, Luxor Museum consists of a garden with four human-size statues and a two-floor building with six halls displaying around 2,200 artifacts covering ancient Egyptian eras, including Pharaonic, Greco-Roman, Coptic and Islamic periods.
The temple of Karnak was known as Ipet-isu—or “most select of places”—by the ancient Egyptians. It is a city of temples built over 2,000 years and dedicated to the Theban triad of Amun, Mut, and Khonsu. This derelict place is still capable of overshadowing many wonders of the modern world and in its day must have been awe-inspiring.
For the largely uneducated ancient Egyptian population, this could only have been the place of the gods. It is the largest religious building ever made, covering about 200 acres (1.5 km by 0.8 km), and was a place of pilgrimage for nearly 2,000 years. The area of the sacred enclosure of Amun alone is sixty-one acres and could hold ten average European cathedrals. The great temple at the heart of Karnak is so big that St Peter’s, Milan, and Notre Dame Cathedrals would fit within its walls.
Situated on the ancient site of Thebes, on Luxor's West Bank, the Valley of Kings is the ancient burial ground of many of Egypt's New Kingdom rulers. A truly impressive site! There, you will find Tutankhamen’s tomb which was discovered almost intact in 1922 and the tomb of Ramses IV, among others. A ticket will allow you visiting 3 of the 63 tombs on site, except Tutankhamen’s tomb, which requires an additional ticket. Although the tomb alone is worth a visit, you will have to visit the Egyptian Museum in Cairo to see the treasures Tutankhamen was buried with.
Deir el-Medina, like Kahun and the town being uncovered at Giza, is a community of workmen and their families, supervisors and foremen and their families, all dedicated to building the great tombs of the Egyptian Kings. The image of hundreds, perhaps thousands of toiling slaves, whipped by overseers, seems seared into the modern consciousness, and "everyone" is convinced that the despots who ruled Egypt with iron greedy fists must have built their wealth and glory on the bleeding backs of this tortured labor.
Deir el-Medina, which in Arabic means "monastery of the city", was called Pa-demi by the workmen, simply, "the town," though it was also called Set Maa, "the place of truth." is one of the most well-preserved ancient settlements in all Egypt. It lies near Thebes and was a highly skilled community of craftsmen who passed their expertise on from father to son. The community included the workmen and their wives, children and other dependents, as well as coppersmiths, carpenters, potters, basket-makers, and a part-time physician. The workers belonged to what we today would call the middle class, having no royal or noble connections, and much of their work was unglamorous.
Located beneath massive cliffs near the west bank of the Nile, the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut, also known as Deir el Bahri, is dedicated to Amon-Ra, the sun god. Designed by an architect named Senemut, the temple is unique because it was designed like classical architecture. Note the lengthy, colonnaded terrace some of which are 97 ft high, pylons, courts, and hypostyle hall. Inside you'll see the sun court, chapel and sanctuary. Temple reliefs depict the tale of the divine birth of Hatshepsut and trade expeditions to the Land of Punt (a reference to modern Somalia or the Arabian Peninsula).
No Egypt tour is complete without a visit to the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. With over 120,000 artefacts, the museum houses an unbelievable exhibit depicting ancient Egypt's glorious reign. Mummies, sarcophagi, pottery, jewellery and of course King Tutankhamen's treasures, it's all there. The boy-king's death-mask - discovered in its tomb - is made of solid gold and it has been described as the most beautiful object ever made.
The Egyptian Museum is conveniently located in Cairo, the capital city of Egypt. Cairo is also home to the country’s primary international airport, which in turn means that most Egypt tour packages start and end in Cairo, with travelers usually having several days to explore this enchanting city and the many infamous attractions located nearby.
When in Cairo, it is basically impossible to miss the Salah El-Din Citadel , one of the world's greatest monuments to medieval warfare. Resembling a typical early medieval fortress, with large imposing gateways, towers and high defending walls, the Citadel is one of Cairo's main attractions and probably the most popular non-pharaonic monument in the Egyptian capital. The prominent fortress houses three mosques - of which the impressive Mohamed Ali Mosque - a carriage museum, a military museum, and a garden museum, just to name a few, and they are all worth a visit. You are even allowed the run of the fortifications and it is worth a try: the views are spectacular from this height. The citadel is also home to the impressive Gawhara Palace (the Jewel Palace), named after Gawhara Hanem, Mohamed Ali's last wife. Built in 1814, it housed the ruler's administration and was used as a personal residence by the Egyptian leader. Beautiful gold inscriptions adorn the walls of this majestic Ottoman-influenced palace. One of its most eccentric components is the Watch Hall, where the shape of a watch has been used to decorate the walls.
One of Cairo's most popular tourist attractions is the Citadel which houses a number of museums, ancient mosques and other sites, located on a spur of limestone that had been detached from its parent Moqattam Hills by quarrying. The Citadel is one of the world's greatest monuments to medieval warfare, as well as a highly visible landmark on Cairo's eastern skyline.Particularly when viewed from the back side (from the north), the Citadel reveals a very medieval character.
Old Cairo is so named because it is the oldest part of Cairo, and in fact, predates what is now Cairo. Some Egyptologists believe that there was a settlement here as far back as the 6th century BC. Later, the Romans built a fortress here which we call Babylon. Some of these Roman walls still exist. Later, it became a Christian stronghold, with as many as 20 churches built within an area of one square mile. There are only five remaining, but these are certainly a must see when visiting Cairo, along with the earliest Mosque ever built in Egypt. In addition, after the fall of Jerusalem in about 70 AD, the area also saw an influx of that religion into the area, where the oldest synagogue is also located. Most of Pharaonic Egypt is a relic of one of the Worlds first and grandest religions, including the great Pyramids outside Cairo. Yet if the modern world can be said to have four major religions consisting of Christianity, Hinduism, Islam and Judaism, then three of those are represented by some of their most ancient relics in this section of Old Cairo.
Ṣaqqārah, also spelled Sakkara, part of the necropolis of the ancient Egyptian city of Memphis, 15 miles (24 km) southwest of Cairo and west of the modern Arab village of Ṣaqqārah. The site extends along the edge of the desert plateau for about 5 miles (8 km), bordering Abū Ṣīr to the north and Dahshūr to the south. In 1979 the ancient ruins of the Memphis area, including Ṣaqqārah, Abū Ṣīr, Dahshūr, Abū Ruwaysh, and the Pyramids of Giza, were collectively designated a UNESCO World Heritage site.
The earliest remains at Ṣaqqārah are those in the early dynastic cemetery at the northernmost end of the site, where large mud-brick tombs, or mastabas, have been found that date to the very beginning of Egyptian history. Although storage jars found in the mastabas bore the names of the kings of the 1st dynasty (c. 2925–c. 2775 BCE), it seems that these tombs were those of high officials of the period.
Ramses II, also known as Ramses the Great, ruled Egypt for around 60 years, from 1279 B.C. to 1213 B.C. He is credited with expanding ancient Egypt's reach as far as modern Syria to the east and modern Sudan to the south.
The placement of the colossus, weighing over 80 tons and towers at a height of about 12 meters (39 feet), took place amid a ceremony attended by Egyptian officials and foreign diplomats. The massive statue—which for over 50 years had graced the Ramsis Square, named after the statue, in downtown Cairo—was moved in an iron cage hung like a pendulum on a steel bridge for about 400 meters (yards) from where it stood earlier, at the museum compound.
After 11 years of construction, the Aswan High Dam across the Nile River in Egypt is completed on July 21, 1970. More than two miles long at its crest, the massive $1 billion dam ended the cycle of flood and drought in the Nile River region, and exploited a tremendous source of renewable energy, but had a controversial environmental impact.
A dam was completed at Aswan, 500 miles south of Cairo, in 1902. The first Aswan dam provided valuable irrigation during droughts but could not hold back the annual flood of the mighty Nile River. In the 1950s, Egyptian leader Gamal Abdel Nasser envisioned building a new dam across the Nile, one large enough to end flooding and bring electric power to every corner of Egypt. He won United States and British financial backing, but in July 1956 both nations canceled the offer after learning of a secret Egyptian arms agreement with the USSR. In response, Nasser nationalized the British and French-owned Suez Canal, intending to use tolls to pay for his High Dam project. This act precipitated the Suez Canal Crisis, in which Israel, Britain, and France attacked Egypt in a joint military operation. The Suez Canal was occupied, but Soviet, U.S., and U.N. forced Israel, Britain, and France to withdraw, and the Suez Canal was left in Egyptian hands in 1957.
Having been completed in around 690 AD, Philae Temple is considered by many to be the last of the ancient temples constructed in the “classic” Egyptian style. It is one of the many temples throughout Egypt that were built in honor the goddess Isis, and it serves as a remarkable example of the cult that was built around her story, and one which includes Osiris and Horus.
In its prime, it was considered to be one of the most sacred of all temples, by both the Egyptians and the Nubians. This was essentially because they believed that Osiris had in fact been buried on the island where the temple stood. Nobody other than priests were permitted to dwell there, and legend has it that no birds flew overhead, and that even fish and other aquatic animals never approached the shores of the island.
This beautiful temple complex is one of the most picturesque in all of Egypt. It sits on Aglika Island just south of the old Aswan Dam and you must ride a water taxi to the island to get to theruins. The temple was moved to its current location following the construction of the High Dam, which threatened to submerge it permanently. The careful reconstruction at the current site carefully completed, painstakingly preserving the original appearance and layout of the complex and even landscaping the island to match its former location.
Situated in the Nubia region of Egypt, overlooking the emerald waters of Lake Nasser, are the two ancient pharaonic rock temples of Abu Simbel (or the Temple of Ramesses, beloved by Amun) and the Temple of Hathor and Nefertari. The temples are a magnificent examples of ancient Egyptian art and draw the largest number of tourists annually, second only to the Pyramids of Giza.
Construction of the Abu Simbel Temples began around 1264 BC, during the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II (or Ramesses the Great), and persisted for 20 years. Ramesses II commissioned the temples as a lasting monument to himself and his queen Nefertari, following the alleged triumph at the Battle of Kadesh. It was finally completed in 1265 BC – during the 24th year of his prosperous reign.
Saint Simeon Monastery was built by a monk during the 7th century and was subsequently dedicated to a 4th century local saint by the name of Anba Hedra. According to legend, Anba Hedra got married when he was eighteen years old but on the day of his wedding he renounced mankind and immediately decided to devote himself to chastity and become an ascetic after witnessing a funeral procession. Anba Hedra, known today as St. Simeon spent the next seven years doing religious studies under the direction of Saint Baiman. On completion of his studies, Anba Hedra spent the next eight years involved in ascetic practices before finally retiring to the desert so that he could devote his life to studying St. Anthony.
Anba Hedra later moved onto Elephantine Island and began building a monastery. The original structure was built from stone and mud bricks, and surrounded by a ten foot high wall which gave the Saint Simeon Monastery a fortress-like appearance. Records show that the monastery was also rebuilt or at least extended during the 10th century.
By the time work on the monastery was completed in the 10th century, it provided accommodation for around 300 monks, and it had room for roughly 100 pilgrims. The monks that lived at the monastery would travel into Nubia in groups with the aim of converting Nubians to Christianity. Unfortunately, Saint Simeon Monastery was all but destroyed by Saladin and his forces in 1173 and it was sadly never rebuilt.
Lake Nasser, also called Lake Nubia, reservoir on the Nile River, in Upper Egypt and northern Sudan. It was created by the impounding of the Nile’s waters by the Aswan High Dam, which was built in the 1960s and dedicated in 1971. Lake Nasser has a gross capacity of 136,927,000 acre-feet (168,900,000,000 cubic metres), and its waters, when discharged downstream, have brought 800,000 acres (324,000 hectares) of additional land under irrigation and have converted 700,000 acres (283,000 hectares) from flood to perennial irrigation. The lake has been stocked with food fish.
The largest known Egyptian obelisk is called the “unfinished obelisk”, which today can be found exactly where it was once semi-carved from the solid bedrock. This stone block was intended to be a 120ft / 36m tall obelisk. It is estimated that a block of granite this size would easily weigh more than a 1000 tons, some geologists have suggested a figure in the region of 1100 tons – 1150 tons.
Unfortunately this obelisk was never finished because during the process to remove the block of stone from its mother bedrock, a huge crack appeared that made the stone unusable. Apart from its intended use, the stone had no reusable value to the stonemasons of the day, and this resulted in the stone being totally abandoned (possibly in the reign of Queen Hapshepsut – 18th Dynasty). Now take a minute to think of how many man-hours were wasted in getting the unfinished obelisk to the state at which it was abandoned
The little-visited Nubia Museum, opposite Basma Hotel, is a treat, a showcase of the history, art and culture of Nubia. Established in 1997 in cooperation with Unesco, the museum is a reminder of what was lost beneath Lake Nasser. Exhibits are beautifully displayed in huge halls, where clearly written explanations take you from 4500 BC through to the present day. The Nubian Museum has been specifically created to help enlighten visitors about the crucial role this ancient civilization played during Egypt’s past.
The overwhelming majority of tourists arriving in Egypt are there to visit the country’s most infamous attractions, such as the Great Pyramids of Giza; the Sphinx; Valley of Kings and etc. Nonetheless, many visitors want to dig deeper in a quest to understand what drove the many major events that took place during the country’s history, and one way to do that, is to visit a few museums during your stay, including the Nubian Museum in Aswan.
1 ) Ramadan
Festival Month - August
The most important month in the whole year for Muslims all across the world, the month of Ramadan in Egypt gives some of the most beautiful and unique spectacles that you won’t find anywhere else in the world. During this month most Muslims avoid food, drinks, and cigarettes from sunrise to sunset. Bazaars and markets come alive with fairy lighting and loads of people breaking their fast and celebrating their culture with their family and friends. If you are planning to travel to Egypt, try and travel during this month to have the best spectacle of this unique festival celebrated by society.
2 ) Eid Al Adha
Festival Month - August
Popularly known as the “Sacrifice Feast” or the “Bakr Eid”, this perhaps is the second holiest day of the year for Muslims. It is one of the two holidays that is celebrated all around the world by Muslims in unison. It celebrates the will of Ibrahim, one of the important Prophets in Islam, to sacrifice his own son as an act of submission to the one true god Allah. Goats are sacrificed to celebrate this event and the meat from the goat is normally divided into three parts, the first 1/3rd part is consumed by the family, the second 1/3rd is given to relatives and friends and the last part is given to the needy and poor who can’t afford the same luxury.
3 ) Eid Al Fitr
Festival Month - July
Also known as the holiest day of the year, this holiday is celebrated by all the Muslims around the globe. Marking the end of the holy month of Ramadan, this festival invites great celebrations which goes on until past midnight. Everyone puts on new clothes and greets each other with treats which mostly includes sweets and tributes including clothing. Many rich and middle-class people do charity for the poor and needy wherein they buy clothes and food for them. Employees get a bonus from their employers and everyone celebrates the spirit of oneness, peace, and brotherhood all around the country. This is a great occasion that one must experience while going to Egypt. It is one of the best festivals of Egypt.