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Additional Information
Capital Bogota
Currency COP
Timezone America/Bogota
Total States 9 sovereign states
Airport City El Dorado International Airport, José María Córdova International AirportJosé María Córdova International Airport, Rafael Núñez International Airport, Ernesto Cortissoz International Airport, Palonegro International Airport
Ruling Type Government
Offical Languages Spanish, English,
National Animal Andean condors
Food Bandeja Paisa, Lechona, Ajiaco
Seasons Autumn  : Sep - Dec
Summer : Jun - Sep
Winter     : Dec - Mar
Sprint      : Mar - Jun


1 ) Leticia
Popular - Sunset     Location - Leticia, -Amazonas, -Colombia

Leticia   is the southernmost city in the Republic of Colombia, capital of the department of Amazonas, Colombia's southernmost town (4.09° south 69.57° west) and one of the major ports on the Amazon river. It has an elevation of 96 meters (315') above sea level and an average temperature of 27 °C (80.6 °F). Leticia has long been Colombia's shipping point for tropical fish for the aquarium trade. Leticia has approximately 42,000 inhabitants on the left bank of the Amazon river, and is located at the point where Colombia, Brazil and Peru come together in an area called Tres Fronteras

A long-standing border dispute involving Leticia, between Colombia and Peru, was decided in 1934 by the League of Nations after these two nations were engulfed in an armed conflict known as the Colombia-Peru War.

Early Leticia history mentions a Portuguese explorer who, after becoming lost on the Amazon, died of starvation at the present site of Leticia with the rest of his crew. The Peruvian captain Benigno Bustamante, then governor of the Peruvian department of Loreto, founded the city itself on April 25, 1867. Legend has it that when the Peruvian government decided to colonise the area (in order to prevent the Colombian government from claiming it first), they found a cross inscribed with the words "San Antonio", naming the new town after this cross.

A legend states that a Colombian soldier fell in love with an Amerindian woman named Leticia and decided to name the settlement after her. It could also be named after Saint Leticia. However, Peruvian records indicate that on the 15 December 1867, the port of "San Antonio" was renamed to "Leticia" by Peruvian engineer Manuel Charón. Charón named the port in honor of a young female resident of the Peruvian city of Iquitos named Leticia Smith, who in fact, was his wife.

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2 ) Medellin
Popular - Coffee and Tea Plantation     Location - Medellin, -Antioquia, -Colombia

Medellín   officially the Municipality of Medellín (Spanish: Municipio de Medellín), is the second-largest city in Colombia, after Bogotá, and the capital of the department of Antioquia. It is located in the Aburrá Valley, a central region of the Andes Mountains in South America. According to the National Administrative Department of Statistics, the city has an estimated population of 2.5 million as of 2017.With its surrounding area that includes nine other cities, the metropolitan area of Medellín is the second-largest urban agglomeration in Colombia in terms of population and economy, with more than 3.7 million people.

In 1616 the Spaniard Francisco Herrera Campuzano erected a small indigenous village ("poblado") known as "Saint Lawrence of Aburrá" (San Lorenzo de Aburrá), located in the present-day El Poblado commune. On 2 November 1675, the queen consort Mariana of Austria founded the "Town of Our Lady of Candelaria of Medellín" (Villa de Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria de Medellín) in the Aná region, which today corresponds to the center of the city (east-central zone) and first describes the region as "Medellín". In 1826, the city was named the capital of the Department of Antioquia by the National Congress of the nascent Republic of Gran Colombia, comprised by present-day Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Panama. After Colombia won its independence from Spain, Medellín became the capital of the Federal State of Antioquia until 1888, with the proclamation of the Colombian Constitution of 1886. During the 19th century, Medellín was a dynamic commercial center, first exporting gold, then producing and exporting coffee.

At the beginning of the 21st century, the city regained industrial dynamism, with the construction of the Medellín Metro commuter rail, liberalized development policies, improved security and improved education. Researchers at the Overseas Development Institute have lauded the city as a pioneer of a post-Washington consensus "local development state" model of economic development.  The city is promoted internationally as a tourist destination and is considered a global city type "Gamma -" by GaWC.

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3 ) Arauca
Popular - River     Location - Arauca, -Arauca, -Colombia

Arauca is a municipality and capital city of the Arauca Department of Colombia. Its full name is Villa de Santa Bárbara de Arauca, it is located at N 07° 05′ 25″ - W 70° 45′ 42″. The Municipality of Arauca has a total population of 82,149 (2005 census).

The Arauca region was explored by the German conquistador Jorge de la Espira, or Georg von Speyer, in 1536. The early Spanish did not stay because they were on the quest for El Dorado. However, they were later followed by Jesuits and land-grantees who founded the first settlements.

Arauca was founded on December 4, 1780, by Juan Isidro Daboín on the site of an indigenous hamlet of about ten families called Guahibo. Arauca was named after the Arauca River, which now separates it from Venezuela, which river in turn was named for the indigenous people the Arauca. The area is flat and subject to frequent flooding from the river.

At one point, it was the capital of the New Granada Province of Casanare which was much larger than the current Department of Casanare. In addition, the Villa de Santa Bárbara de Arauca, has been:

  • Capital of the Republic, under the revolutionary government, constituted July 16, 1816;
  • Capital of the Police District (Comisaría especial) since 1911;
  • Capital of the Province (Intendencia Nacional) of Arauca, 1955–1991;
  • Oil capital of Colombia since 1986;
  • Capital of the Department of Arauca since 1991.

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4 ) Barranquilla
Popular - Sunset     Location - Barranquilla, -Atlantico, -Colombia

Barranquilla  is the capital district of Atlántico Department in Colombia. It is located near the Caribbean Sea and is the largest city and second port in the northern Caribbean Coast region; as of 2018 it had a population of 1,232,766, making it Colombia's fourth-most populous city after Bogotá, Medellín and Cali.

Barranquilla lies strategically next to the delta of the Magdalena River, 7.5 kilometres (4.7 miles) (originally 25 kilometres (16 miles) before rapid urban growth) from its mouth at the Caribbean Sea, serving as a port for river and maritime transportation within Colombia. It is also the main industrial, shopping, educational and cultural center of the Caribbean Region of Colombia. The city is the core of the Metropolitan Area of Barranquilla, which also includes the municipalities of Soledad, Galapa, Malambo, and Puerto Colombia.

Barranquilla was legally established as a town on April 7, 1813, although it dates from at least 1629. It grew into an important port, serving as a haven for immigrants from Europe, especially during and immediately following World War I and World War II, when waves of additional immigrants from the Middle East and Asia arrived. Barranquilla became Colombia's principal port, and with its level of industrialization and modernity earned the city the nickname "Colombia's Golden Gate" (Spanish: La Puerta de Oro de Colombia). In the 1940s, Barranquilla was the second-largest city in Colombia and one of the most modern cities in the Caribbean and in South America; later local administrations, due to widespread corruption in their ranks, brought about a decline in the standard of living. As government investment increased in other Colombian cities, Barranquilla's national position was eclipsed.

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5 ) Cartagena
Popular - Culture     Location - Cartagena, -Bolivar, -Colombia

The city of Cartagena known in the colonial era as Cartagena de Indias  is a major port founded in 1533, located on the northern coast of Colombia in the Caribbean Coast Region. It was strategically located between the Magdalena and Sinú rivers and became the main port for trade between Spain and its overseas empire, establishing its importance by the early 1540s. During the colonial era it was a key port for the export of Peruvian silver to Spain and for the import of enslaved Africans under the asiento system. It was defensible against pirate attacks in the Caribbean. It is the capital of the Bolívar Department, and had a population 971,592 as of 2016. It is the fifth-largest  city in Colombia and the second largest in the region, after Barranquilla. The urban area of Cartagena is also the fifth-largest urban area in the country. Economic activities include the maritime and petrochemicals industries, as well as tourism.

The city was founded on June 1, 1533, and named after Cartagena, Spain, settlement in the region around Cartagena Bay by various indigenous people dates back to 4000 BC. During the Spanish colonial period Cartagena served a key role in administration and expansion of the Spanish empire. It was a center of political, ecclesiastical, and economic activity. In 1984, Cartagena's colonial walled city and fortress were designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The Puerto Hormiga Culture, found in the Caribbean coast region, particularly in the area from the Sinú River Delta to the Cartagena Bay, appears to be the first documented human community in what is now Colombia. Archaeologists estimate that around 4000 BC, the formative culture was located near the boundary between the present-day departments of Bolívar and Sucre. In this area, archaeologists have found the most ancient ceramic objects of the Americas, dating from around 4000 BC. The primary reason for the proliferation of primitive societies in this area is thought to have been the relative mildness of climate and the abundance of wildlife, which allowed the hunting inhabitants a comfortable life.

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6 ) Tunja
Popular - Temple / Church / Mosque     Location - Tunja, -Boyaca, -Colombia

Tunja  is a city on the Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes, in the region known as the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, 130 km northeast of Bogotá. In 2012 it had an estimated population of 181,407 inhabitants.It is the capital of Boyacá department and the Central Boyacá Province. Tunja is an important educational centre of well-known universities. In the time before the Spanish conquest of the Muisca, Tunja was called Hunza and was conquered by the Spanish conquistadors on August 20, 1537 upon zaque Quemuenchatocha and founded by the Spanish on August 6, 1539, exactly one year after the former southern capital Bacatá. The city hosts the most remaining Muisca architecture: Hunzahúa Well, Goranchacha Temple and Cojines del Zaque.

Tunja is a tourist destination, especially for religious colonial architecture, with the Casa Fundador Gonzalo Suárez Rendón as oldest remnant. In addition to its religious and historical sites it is host to several internationally known festivals and is a jumping-off point for regional tourist destinations such as Villa de Leyva, Paipa, and Sierra Nevada del Cocuy. It is a stop on the Pan American Highway which connects Tunja to Bogotá and Santa Marta and eventually to the northern and southernmost parts of South America.

Tunja has a population of approximately 180,000 inhabitants and is located in central Colombia. The city centre is at an elevation of 2,820 metres (9,250 ft) above sea level.

Tunja's climate is influenced by its location and altitude. At almost 3000 m it is one of the higher cities in Colombia. As a result, the city features a subtropical highland climate (Köppen Cfb) with little variation in temperature throughout the year but a distinct dry season from December to February.

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7 ) Manizales
Popular - University     Location - Manizales, -Caldas, -Colombia

Manizales  is a city and municipality in central Colombia. It is the capital of the Department of Caldas, and lies near the Nevado del Ruiz volcano.

Currently, the city is the main center for the production of Colombian coffee and an important hub for higher educational institutions.

Manizales was founded on October 12, 1849. The city was founded by a group of twenty Antioquians (The Expedition of the 20), who came from Neira and Salamina. There is a strong Spanish influence in the culture and the population was very homogeneous, mostly white, until other ethnic groups migrated to the city, attracted by the universities.

Manizales is the capital city of one of the smallest Colombian departments. The city is described as having an "abrupt topography", and lies on the Colombian Central Mountain Range (part of the longest continental mountain range, the Andes), with a great deal of ridgelines and steep slopes, which, combined with the seismic instability of the area, has required architectural adaptations and public works to make the city safer. Even though Manizales has this very difficult topography, there are many coffee plantations in its fertile lands. The city is located in the northern part of the Colombian Coffee-Growers Axis ("Eje Cafetero"), near the volcano Nevado del Ruiz, which has an altitude of 5,321 meters (17,457.3 ft).

It is in the basin of the Chinchiná River and sub-basin of the Guacaica River. Its natural threats are earthquakes, mudslides, and volcanic eruptions.

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8 ) Florencia
Popular - Textile     Location - Florencia, -Caqueta, -Colombia

Florencia  is a municipality and capital city of the Department of Caquetá, Colombia. It is the most important city in southwest Colombia because of its population as well as its more than a hundred years of history. It is the boundary between mountains and the Amazon. It lies on the Orteguaza River which flows into the Caqueta River. Its population is roughly 165,000.

Florencia was founded on December 25, 1902 by Capuchin Friar Doroteo De Pupiales (1876-1959) Born in Pupiales, Nariño, Colombia.

Florencia is located by the steps of the Cordillera Oriental mountain range. The municipality of Florencia limits to the north with the Huila Department and the municipality of El Paujil, to the east with the municipalities of El Paujil and La Montañita, to the south with the municipalities of Milán and Morelia, and to the west with the municipality of Belén de Andaquies and the Huila Department.

Florencia has a tropical rainforest climate (Af), and experiences significant rainfall during the course of the year. There is still a large amount of rainfall, even in the driest month. The average temperature in Florencia is 19.2 °C. In Florencia, July is the driest month, while October tends to be the wettest month. About 5191 mm (around 204 inches) of precipitation falls annually during the year.


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9 ) Yopal
Popular - Cane Sugar Production     Location - Yopal, -Casanare, -Colombia

Yopal, also called El Yopal, town and capital of Casanare departamento, eastern Colombia. The original settlement (caserío) of Yopal was founded in 1935 by Pedro Pablo González, and it has been the seat of Casanare intendency (now departamento) since the creation of Casanare in 1974. Located at the western edge of the Llanos (plains), Yopal has road connections to Sagamosa in the Cordillera Oriental. The local economy has long depended on cattle raising and agriculture; the principal crops are rice, corn (maize), coffee, sugarcane, beans, plantains, and citrus fruits. The population of Yopal has increased markedly since the mid-1990s, when it became a regional centre for petroleum production; however, the town and its hinterland have suffered from increasing levels of violent crime, cocaine trafficking, and attacks by guerrillas and paramilitary groups. Pop. (2007 est.) 97,865.

Colombia, officially Republic of Colombia, Spanish República de Colombia, country of northwestern South America. Its 1,000 miles (1,600 km) of coast to the north are bathed by the waters of the Caribbean Sea, and its 800 miles (1,300 km) of coast to the west are washed by the Pacific Ocean. The country is bordered by Panama, which divides the two bodies of water, on the northwest, Venezuela and Brazil on the east, and Peru and Ecuador on the south. It is more than twice the size of France and includes the San Andrés y Providencia archipelago, located off the Nicaraguan coast in the Caribbean, some 400 miles (650 km) northwest of the Colombian mainland. The population is largely concentrated in the mountainous interior, where Bogotá, the national capital, is situated on a high plateau in the northern Andes Mountains.

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10 ) Popayan
Popular - Temple / Church / Mosque     Location - Popayan, -Cauca, -Colombia

Popayán  is the capital of the Colombian department of Cauca. It is located in southwestern Colombia between the Western Mountain Range and Central Mountain Range. It has a population of 258,653 people, an area of 483 km2, is located 1760 meters above sea level, and has an average temperature of 18 °C.

The town is well known for its colonial architecture and its contributions to Colombian cultural and political life. It is also known as the "white city" due to the color of most of the colonial buildings in the city center, where several churches are located, such as San Francisco, San José, Belén, Santo Domingo, San Agustín, and the Catedral Basílica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción, known locally as "La Catedral". The city's cathedral was home to the Crown of the Andes, a 16th-century Marianist devotional object featuring emeralds taken from the captured Inca Emperor Atahualpa. It was sold to finance local health care institutions.

Popayán has been home to seventeen Colombian presidents, as well as noted poets, painters, and composers. The University of Cauca (est. 1827), one of Colombia's oldest and most distinguished institutions of higher education, is located here, so Popayán is also known as the "University City". Nearby is Puracé National Natural Park. The nearest large city is Cali, in the Valle del Cauca Department, north of Cauca.

Much of the city's original splendor was destroyed on 31 March 1983, when an earthquake toppled many buildings. Though many were rebuilt and repaired, the heart of the city still has ruins and empty lots. In 2005, Popayán was declared by the UNESCO as the first city of gastronomy because of its variety and meaning to the intangible patrimony of Colombian culture.The culinary history of the Cauca Department was chosen because it maintains traditional food preparation methods that have been passed down orally for generations. In 2009, UNESCO also declared the Semana Santa processions during Easter Week a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Patrimony of Humanity.

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11 ) Valledupar
Popular - Culture     Location - Valledupar, -Cesar, -Colombia

Valledupar  is a city and municipality in northeastern Colombia. It is the capital of Cesar Department. Its name, Valle de Upar (Valley of Upar), was established in honor of the Amerindian cacique who ruled the valley; Cacique Upar. The city lies between the mountains of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and the Serranía del Perijá to the borders of the Guatapurí and Cesar rivers.

Valledupar is an important agricultural, cattle raising, coal mining and agro-industrial center for the region between the Departments of Cesar and southern municipalities of La Guajira Department, formerly known as the Padilla Province. Valledupar is notable as the cradle of vallenato music, representative of the Colombian culture. The city hosts the Vallenato Legend Festival.

During the 1980s, 1990s and early 2000s, the city suffered during the Colombian Armed Conflict, with numerous kidnappings, housands of people forced out and failure to control crime.

Valledupar has one of Colombia's most modern maximum security prisons.

The municipality of Valledupar is located southeast of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, 10 degrees, 29 minutes, of north latitude and 73 degrees 15 minutes longitude to the west of the Greenwich Meridian. Valledupar's average temperature is 28 °C. Because of its high altitude but proximity to the equator, this municipality possesses a variety of environments, from warm heat to perpetual snow. The most important heights are the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta's peaks; the Codazzi, El Guardian, the Ojeda and La Reina. Many rivers descend from its snowy peaks and lagoons; the Ariguani, Ariguanicito, Badillo, Calderas, Cesar, Curiba, Donachui, Garupal, Guatapuri, which borders the city of Valledupar; and the Mariangola.

The Municipality of Valledupar is bordered on the north with the municipalities of Riohacha and San Juan del Cesar in the department of La Guajira. To the south are the municipalities of El Paso and Los Robles La Paz in the department of Cesar; to the east are the municipalities of Villanueva and Urumita, also in the Department of La Guajira; and to the west are the municipalities Fundacion and Aracataca, in the department of Magdalena.

The municipality has an area of about 4,977.96 km², from which 72,660 km² pertain to the Arhuacos Indian Reserve, 399.52 km² to the Kogui and Wiwa Indian Reserve, and 425.60 km² to the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta National Park.

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1 ) Carnaval de Barranquilla

Festival Month - March

Like the Carnaval celebration in Rio de Janeiro and Mardi Gras in New Orleans, the Carnaval celebration in Barranquilla occurs in the days leading up to Lent.

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2 ) Festival de las Flores

Festival Month - August

The Feria de las Flores (the Flower Festival) is another incredible festival in Colombia that takes place in Medellin, Antioquía. This festival happens every year during the first two weeks of August and lasts around 10 days.

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3 ) Festival Iberoamericano de Teatro

Festival Month - December

One of the biggest performing festivals in the world, the Festival Iberoamericano de Teatro (Ibero-american Theater Festival) is a unique Colombian festival that occurs every two years in Bogotá.

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